To be at the top of your game in the mobile business market, you need to keep an eye out for the top and dominating cell phone technologies to be successful.
Staying updated with industry trends, whether you are a mobile developer or a grocery shop owner, it is always necessary and important to have mobile presence and education in the cell phone technology space.
Mobile phones are called “cell phones” because of their cellular technology which basically refers to having various small interconnected transmitters as opposed to a single big one. With the concept of “multiple access”, meaning multiple voice or data connections placed into a single radio channel, the communication business is booming.
With the ease of channels of information on your fingertips, it is sometimes difficult to recognize what is fad or fake news, which is why we have narrowed down some most popular cell phone technologies dominating in the US in 2021.
In 2021, the number of CDMA subscriptions reached more than 2 million Latin Americans making it the most widely used cellular technology in the US. While the Most Popular Cell Phone Technology all over the United States is CDMA, that is, the Code Division Multiple Access. Let’s have a look at CDMA and other such cellular technologies in detail.
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
In the below figure, 4 stations marked as 1, 2, 3 and 4. Data stations as d1, d2, d3 and d4 and code stations as c1, c2, c3 and c4.
Global System of Mobile Technology (GSM) rolled out it’s 3G technology called CDMA, which is the most popular cellular network in the United States, whereas, GSM is a worldwide concept.
CDMA which is mostly a US thing, allows each station to transmit data simultaneously over the entire frequency. Unique code sequence assigned to each user helps in separating multiple simultaneous transmissions.
It has better rural coverage and thus works good for large places like the United states, but less overall coverage worldwide.
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
FDMA, which is a type of channelization protocol, includes a bandwidth which is divided into various frequency bands. With the allocation of each station with band, it helps the bands to send data and preserve the same band for a particular station for all the time.
A small band of unused frequency called guard bands separates frequency bands of different stations. This provides access to data link layers at each station, creating a signal in the allocated band with no physical multiplexer at the physical layer.
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
In TDMA, the bandwidth of channel is divided into various stations on the basis of time. This channelization protocol allows giving a time slot to each station, transmitting the data only during that time slot.
It is important that each station is aware of the time slot and the location of the time slot. TDMA is a type of access method in the data link layer, telling each station to use the allocated time slot allowing synchronization among different stations.
Global System for Mobile Technology (GSM)
Originally the 2G standard launched in 1991, GSM was the first major deployment to use encryption. It is a market hit with 90% share and penetration into around 220 countries.
It later rolled out its 3G technology, CDMA. (read above). While GSM is a worldwide concept, CDMA is most popular in the United States.
While CDMA phones require you to register your device with the network, GSM allows the user to switch SIM cards with another GSM device.
It mostly covers the whole world, except rural areas where CDMA works the best.
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)
OFDMA requires bundling of multiple small frequency bands which are orthogonal to each other providing separation of users. This makes the user’s frequency domain multiplexed and allocates sub-bands to each user.
It is even more enhanced by performing TDMA which allows the allocation to be done periodically giving a chance to users to get different sub-bands at different times.
Other Cellular Technologies Explained
It is known to be an analogy technology and the first generation of GSM.
Second Generation (2G) was digital and not an analog. It not only introduced encryption but also had different versions of GSM and CDMA.
With an increased jump of transfer rates of up to 200 kbit/second, 3G later started achieving multiple megabits per second.
4G introduced mobile broadband internet services to external systems like laptops, wireless modems etc.
- High Speed Packet Access (HSPA)
A technical standard for wireless broadband telecommunication used to increase packet data performance, HSPA is a merge of two technologies which are:
- High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)
- High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA)
- Long Term Evolution (LTE)
Often known as 4G LTE, it is known to increase bandwidth which is available for voice and data communications and uses a different radio interface which is combined with a number of network improvements.
It is a perfect upgrade path for both GSM and CDMA based networks.
- Advanced Wireless Services (AWS)
AWS is also known as UMTS band IV. It is widely used in the United States, and uses microwave frequencies by mobile devices such as wireless phones for voice, data and messaging services.
It has improved over the years; this band has been in general use with most high-end and mid-range handsets supporting it over HSPA and LTE both.
The microwave frequencies come in two segments:
- from 1710 to 1755 MHz for uplink
- from 2110 to 2155 MHz for downlink
Combination of LTE and AWS network, XLTE devices automatically access both the 700 Mhz and the AWS spectrum in XLTE cities. Even though it provides a minimum of double the bandwidth of LTE, it shows consumers the benefits of even more capacity on the nation’s largest and most reliable 4G LTE network.
It is lead by Verizon since 2014.
VoLTE, which is a voice technology works over the LTE network and not other 3G voice bands. With extremely high voice quality, just like a person sitting right next to you, VoLTE requires both the participants using the same network and in VoLTE enabled areas.
It also has a feature of video calls.
- Wi-Fi Calling
Wi-Fi calling, one of the majorities used network allows users to call to a phone number using the internet services. It is quite different from VoLTE, because the calls go over a phone company’s network.
It also promises to swap easily between Wi-Fi and wireless phone networks.